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Social Capital Research

"THE VALUE OF RELATIONSHIPS: IMPROVING HUMAN SERVICES PARTICIPANT OUTCOMES THROUGH SOCIAL CAPITAL"
https://aspe.hhs.gov/reports/value-relationships-improving-human-services-participant-outcomes-through-social-capital
From the website: "This handbook is a go-to resource for human services providers looking for practical ways to implement social capital building practices to improve participant outcomes. Building on findings from over a year of research on ways human services can build and leverage participant social capital, or the value that arises from connections, networks, and relationships, this handbook details five principles undergirding social capital practices and eight emerging social capital practices. Included in the description of each emerging practice are real world examples of how they have been implemented across the country and a worksheet to help human services providers think about how they can implement these practices in their own work."

‘OUR KIDS,’ BY ROBERT D. PUTNAM - NY TIMES BOOK REVIEW
https://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/08/books/review/our-kids-by-robert-d-putnam.html?_r=1
This is a review of a 2015 book by Robert Putnam, titled “Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis”  which focuses on the advantages of growing up in affluent families and disadvantages of growing up in poor families, and how these impact lives and social/economic opportunity. 

5 STEPS FOR BUILDING & STRENGTHENING STUDENTS’ NETWORKS
https://whoyouknow.org/playbook/
From the website: "This playbook was developed by the Clayton Christensen Institute to help K–12 and postsecondary leadership and nonprofits that work with those institutions implement and adapt strategies, tools, and metrics that build and strengthen their students’ networks in support of their well-being and with the aim of expanding their postsecondary and career options. Although we offer tools and tactics that could be implemented in standalone programming or courses, we urge users to treat network-building as a system-wide goal, rather than a one-off effort reserved for only a few students."  

A SOCIAL CAPITAL THEORY OF CAREER SUCCESS
https://journals.aom.org/doi/abs/10.5465/3069452
From the web site: "ABSTRACT:  A SOCIAL CAPITAL THEORY OF CAREER SUCCESS: A theoretical model that integrates previously competing theories of social capital with the literature on career success was developed and tested with a sample of 448 employees in a range of occupations and organizations. Social capital was conceptualized in terms of network structure (weak ties and structural holes) and social resources (contacts in other functions and contacts at other organizational levels). Results of a SEM showed that network structure was related to social resources and that the effects of social resources on career success were fully mediated by three network benefits: access to information, access to resources, and career sponsorship." Tutor/Mentor Connection Comment: If this is true for people in the workforce, can a case be made for mentoring as a strategy to expand social networks for disadvantaged youth, or to expand the networks for workplace volunteers?

ADDRESSING SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL NEEDS (PPT)
https://www.powershow.com/view/9562a-ZWMzY/Addressing_Student_Social_and_Emotional_Needs_powerpoint_ppt_presentation#
This link points to a ppt titled "Addressing Student Social and Emotional Needs', created by Michael E. Woolley, Ph.D., University of Chicago School of Social Service Administration.  The following points are made in this ppt,  * Research consistently shows that a student’s attitudes and beliefs about school predict better behavior and academic performance " * When student report more supportive adults—at home, in their neighborhood , and at school—they have higher levels of positive attitudes and behaviors about school *The presence of supportive adults reduces the impact of environmental risk factors. * When student reported levels of risk factors and supportive adults are taken into account, race/ethnicity differences disappear, and family SES differences reduce. How can leaders of volunteer-based tutor/mentor programs use this information to build funding support for volunteer-based tutor/mentor programs operating in non-school hours and at schools or community based organizations? 

AMERICA MOVING TOWARD CASTE SOCIETY - PUTNAM 2014
https://www.macleans.ca/society/america-is-moving-toward-a-caste-society/
In this interview Harvard academic Robert Putnam talks about "the death of the American Dream and why being poor in America is no longer a matter of race."  Supporters of volunteer-based tutoring/mentoring should use this as further evidence of where and why mentor-rich programs are needed.

ANYONE MAPPING YOUTH NETWORK CHANGES?
http://tutormentorconnection.ning.com/group/technologyinternswithtutormentorconnection/forum/topics/mapping-change-in-youth
The articles in this section of the Tutor/Mentor Connection NING forum web site are about social capital and how high amounts of "bonding" social capital and/or "bridging" social capital can have an influence on youth aspirations, habits and development. The Tutor/Mentor Connection still is looking for university and funding partners to develop a long-term study of tutor/mentor programs, to show changes in a youth and volunteer's network resulting from on-going participation in a mentor-rich program. Visit the link and read more.

APPLYING SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS TO STUDY PUBLIC AUTHORITY AND GOVERNANCE
https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2018/03/01/beyond-mixed-metaphors-of-networks-applying-social-network-analysis-to-study-publicauthority-and-governance/
In this blog article "Patrycja Stys explores how using Social Network Analysis (SNA) (in Africa) can improve our understanding of public authority.  This article is part of the PublicAuthority blog series, part of the ESRC-funded Centre for Public Authority and International Development.

ASSIST SOCIAL CAPITAL - BUILDING UNDERSTANDING OF SOCIAL CAPITAL
http://social-capital.net/
From the web site: "Assist Social Capital's aim is to increase understanding of the influence social capital has in communities, as a means to achieving positive social change and sustainable economic prosperity."

BRIDGING AND BONDING SOCIAL CAPITAL - WHAT IS DIFFERENCE?
https://www.socialcapitalresearch.com/difference-bonding-bridging-social-capital/
This is one of many articles where the difference between "bridging" and "bonding" social capital is discussed.

BUILDING BRIDGING SOCIAL CAPITAL IN A DIVIDED SOCIETY - RESEARCH
https://gfbertini.wordpress.com/2014/05/12/building-bridging-social-capital-in-a-divided-society-the-role-of-participatory-citizenship-education/
The full title of this research is "Building bridging Social Capital in a Divided Society: the role of Participatory Citizenship Education"  It examines the challenges and potential of using a participatory citizenship program in Northern Ireland to build bridging social capital connecting people in the region.  Ideas can be applied to other places. 

CASE STUDIES OF ORGS WHO INCREASE STUDENTS' ACCESS TO SOCIAL CAPITAL
https://whoyouknow.org/research/
This page is from the "Who you Know" section of the Christensen Institute website. The page says "Want to build your students' networks?  Here, we feature emerging research and case studies from the frontlines, and explore cutting-edge designs and measurement practices to increase students' access to social capital."

CHICAGO'S POOR NEIGHBORHOODS. EVERYTHING DESERTS (ARTICLE)
https://www.chicagomag.com/city-life/may-2013/why-is-chicago-a-commercial-desert/
This Chicago Magazine article points to research done by Mario Luis Small, of University of Chicago, showing how poor neighborhoods of Chicago have less density of "places that employ people and provide things: restaurants, grocery stores, churches, banks, a whole list of stuff."    See links to Small's research in the article. Note: This is one of several articles under the heading of “Poor Neighborhoods” which you can find at https://www.chicagomag.com/page/2/?s=chicago%27s+poor+neighborhoods

CONCEPTUALIZING SOCIAL CAPITAL AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE (2004)
https://web.archive.org/web/20161229174134/http://www.colorado.edu:80/journals/cye/14_1/articles/article6full.htm
From the web site: "The concept of social capital has gained more recognition in the past few decades but has created conceptual confusion due to varying uses of the term by different writers. Definitional and methodological flaws plague the few studies that have explored social capital among young people. This paper offers a critical synthesis of the construct and also introduces a new theoretical framework of social capital among young people to encourage future research." 

DATA AND SOCIETY - RESEARCH INSTITUTE
https://datasociety.net/about/
From the web site "Data & Society is a research institute in New York City that is focused on the social and cultural issues arising from data-centric technological development."

DEFINING AND MEASURING SOCIAL CAPITAL FOR YOUNG PEOPLE
https://www.search-institute.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/SOCAP-Lit-Review.pdf
This is an extensive report discussing social capital for young people, done by the Search Institute.  Released in 2020.  

DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMATOLOGY - SOCIAL CAPITAL ARTICLE
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15839763/
The full name of this article is:  Depressive Symptomatology, Exposure to Violence, and the Role of Social Capital Among African American Adolescents  The findings suggest the importance of interrelationships among violence exposure, capital, and well-being for adolescents.

DOES SOCIAL CAPITAL MAKE A DIFFERENCE?
https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/55
From the abstract:  "This article argues that social capital plays a central role in the ability of young people to "navigate" risk decisions and considers the types of social capital  that provide the resources for young people to cope, manage and make informed choices about risk, and to act upon them, literally what it takes to be a risk navigator." 

ECONOMIC INEQUALITY AND POVERTY GAP - PUTNAM
https://www.bendbulletin.com/lifestyle/harvard-professor-and-best-selling-author-to-speak-in-bend/article_4157e524-2eb6-5a71-8233-8622ed57ea11.html
This is article from central Oregon newspaper about Robert Putnam's 2015 book titled "Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis”.  Any community with divisions between rich and poor should include this article, and the book, as part of their community reading.

EXPLANATION OF TYPES OF SOCIAL CAPITAL - 2013 BLOG
https://www.socialcapitalresearch.com/explanation-types-social-capital/
This article provides a framework for understanding, and classifying the difference between bridging and bonding social capital.

FAMILY AS EMOTIONAL UNIT - BOWEN THEORY
https://www.thebowencenter.org/core-concepts-diagrams
This information is found on the web site of The Bowen Center for the Study of the Family and the Georgetown Family Center. "Bowen family systems theory is a theory of human behavior that views the family as an emotional unit and uses systems thinking to describe the complex interactions in the unit." This link points to Eight Concepts of this theory.

HOW ARE PROGRAMS BUILDING STUDENTS’ SOCIAL CAPITAL? 10 KEY TRENDS
https://www.christenseninstitute.org/blog/how-are-programs-building-students-social-capital-10-key-trends/
This report is "a look at a subset of innovative organizations that are specifically designed to broker deep and diverse relationships in young people’s lives to expand access networks of support and opportunity.

HOW OUR NARROWING SOCIAL CIRCLES CREATES UNEQUAL WORLD - ARTICLE
https://www.theguardian.com/inequality/2017/jun/27/people-like-us-why-narrowing-social-circles-create-more-unequal-world
This article focuses on how people from different classes are disconnecting from others and what impact this as on society as a whole.

INCOME INEQUALITY - SOCIAL MOBILITY RESEARCH FROM THE EQUALITY TRUST (UK) - PDF
https://equalitytrust.org.uk/sites/default/files/research-digest-trends-measures-final.pdf
This report deals with "the relationship between high income inequality and low levels of social mobility."  See more like this at https://www.equalitytrust.org.uk/taxonomy/term/92 

INFED.ORG - ARTICLES ABOUT SOCIAL CAPITAL AND INFORMAL LEARNING
https://infed.org/social-capital/
This site offers an extensive library of articles about social capital.  The site is sort of a wikipedia-type collection of articles related to "Association, democracy and civil society, Community learning and development, Education, Ideas, Index, Social action, social change and social reform". 

LINKING MENTORING AND SOCIAL CAPITAL
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1523422307304102
This article explores the connections between social capital and mentoring. You can read the abstract for free, but you need to pay to view the entire PDF.

MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL - NETWORK ANALYSIS
https://web.archive.org/web/20170718165802/https://www.hks.harvard.edu/programs/saguaro/measurement
The Saguaro Seminar at Harvard University web site has an extensive list of resources and ideas for evaluation and measurement of changes in social capital that could result from intentional strategies like volunteer based tutoring/mentoring. 2020 note: The Saguaro Seminar is now closed. This page is an archive.

MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL - PDF
https://gaag.home.xs4all.nl/work/propmeasSC.pdf
This 2003 article offers ideas on ways that social capital gains and benefits could be measured.  If mentoring is a way to expand social capital for inner city youth we would need to find ways to measure these gains to demonstrate value to potential funders.

MEASURING SOCIAL CAPITAL. 2020 CHRISTENSEN INSTITUTE PDF
https://staging.whoyouknow.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/THE-MISSING-METRICS.pdf
The title of this 2020 report is "The Missing Metrics: Emerging practices for measuring students’ relationships and networks.  It shows the importance of social capital and the need to treat it as an outcome of school and non-school program design, not just as an input to learning.  It also shows that very few are actually measuring changes in social capital but points to some emerging programs who are beginning to try to do this. 

Tutor/Mentor Comment: This should be recommended reading for school leaders, philanthropists, and leaders of non-school, volunteer based youth serving programs.

NEIGHBORHOOD SOCIAL CAPITAL, PDF
http://www.tutormentorexchange.net/images/PDF/neighborhood_social_capital.pdf
"Neighborhood Social Capital as Differential Social Organization: Resident and Leadership Dimensions" by Robert J. Sampson\Corina Graif, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.  This article treats social capital as a multidimensional phenomenon along which neighborhoods are deferentially organized.

T/MC Note: as we understand how volunteers in a tutor/mentor program are a form of "bridging social capital" that connect youth and families with assets and opportunities beyond the high poverty area, we can gain more support for the growth of these programs. This article helps build that understanding.

ON SOCIAL POVERTY: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF SOCIAL CAPITAL
https://www.josephlewandowski.com/images/Social_Poverty.pdf
Article by Joseph D. Lewandowski. He writes “Among social scientists, development theorists, and policy makers there is today an emergent consensus about the multidimensional and contextual character of poverty. Working within the framework of such a consensus in this article, I attempt to identify the social dimension of human poverty. Most generally, I try to sketch an account of social poverty as a shared normative (or soft) constraint on human action and interaction.” In this paper he argues that “social poverty is an absence or scarcity of vertical social capital.“ Read the full paper.

RELATIONSHIP MAPPING - CERES INSTITUTE FOR CHILDREN & YOUTH
https://ceresinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/Using-the-WoS-Framework.pdf
This PDF talks about the importance of helping students have a "web of support" and describes some strategies for mapping student networks.  

ROLE OF SOCIAL CAPITAL IN HIGH POVERTY PLACES
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11314847/
The full title of this report is :  Poor people, poor places, and poor health: the mediating role of social networks and social capital.   This paper explores the dynamics between poverty and exclusion; neighborhood, and health and well being by considering the role of social networks and social capital in the social processes involved.

SAGUARO SEMINAR: CIVIC ENGAGEMENT IN AMERICA - FOCUS ON SOCIAL CAPITAL
https://web.archive.org/web/20170718165752/https://www.hks.harvard.edu/programs/saguaro/our-research/diversity,-equality-and-social-capital
From the archive of the web site: "The Saguaro Seminar, under the leadership of Robert D. Putnam, has been conducting research on the inter-relation of diversity (mainly examining race and ethnicity), immigration and social capital since 2001.  We have also been examining the relationship between inequality and both diversity and social capital."

SOCIAL CAPITAL - AS PART OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT
http://career.iresearchnet.com/career-development/social-capital/
This article can help you expand your understanding of social capital, although it is focused on personal development within a business career, and not on network development for young people living in high poverty areas.

SOCIAL CAPITAL - HOWARD RHEINGOLD'S LIBRARY
https://www.diigo.com/profile/hrheingold/social_capital
Find additional articles about social capital in this collection of links curated by Howard Rheingold.

SOCIAL CAPITAL AND DEVELOPMENT OF AT-RISK YOUTH
https://www.jstor.org/stable/353914
The full title of this report is  Social Capital and Successful Development Among At-Risk Youth , by Frank F. Furstenberg Jr. and Mary Elizabeth; Hughes of The University of Pennsylvania. The article applies Coleman's concept of social capital to understand differences in development among youth at risk of lifelong disadvantage.

SOCIAL CAPITAL ARTICLES ON TUTOR/MENTOR INSTITUTE, LLC BLOG
http://tutormentor.blogspot.com/search/label/social%20capital
Read articles posted since 2005 about social capital and building networks on the Tutor/Mentor Institute, LLC blog.  In many articles new links have been added at the bottom as "updates".  Some of these are also in the social capital research section of this web library, but others may not be.  See how GIS maps are used in the articles to show where poverty is concentrated, which are were there are weaker bridging social capital ties and read how organized, mentor-rich youth programs can help expand "who you know" for youth living in poverty who are able to participate in these programs. 

SOCIAL CAPITAL GATEWAY
https://www.socialcapitalgateway.org/about-us/website
From the web site: "Social Capital Gateway (SCG) is a web site publishing materials for the study of social capital and related topics in a multidisciplinary perspective.

SOCIAL CAPITAL GLOSSARY - FROM SAGUARO SEMINAR AT HAVARD
https://web.archive.org/web/20170417204747/https://www.hks.harvard.edu/saguaro/glossary
This page offers definitions of "bridging" and "bonding" social capital.  NOTE: The Saguaro Seminar is no longer found on the Harvard Business School web site. This link points to a web archive of the site 

SOCIAL CAPITAL RESEARCH - DEFINITIONS OF SOCIAL CAPITAL
https://www.socialcapitalresearch.com/literature/definition/
This is one section of an extensive library of Social Capital Research. 

SOCIAL CAPITAL RESEARCH BY DANIEL P. ADRICH
http://daldrich.weebly.com/
Daniel P. Aldrich is full professor of political science and Director of the Security and Resilience Studies Program at Northeastern University.  Is research on bridging, bonding and linking social capital is of value to many.

SOCIAL CAPITAL ROLE IN EMPOWERING LOW-STATUS YOUTH
https://www.scribd.com/document/63078471/A-Social-Capital-Framework-for-the-Empowerment-of-Low-status-Youth
The full title of this paper is "A Social Capital Framework for the Study of Institutional Agents & Their Role in the Empowerment of Low-status Students & Youth", Written by Ricardo D. Stanton-Salazar, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Education Rossier School of Education University of Southern California.   This paper provide rich thinking about the role "that non-family adults agents play in the social development, socialization, formal and informal education, and social mobility of adolescents" and provides many reasons to support mentor-rich non-school tutor/mentor programs operating in high poverty neighborhoods.

SOCIAL CAPITAL: GLUE FOR SUSTAINABILITY
https://www.slideshare.net/vaxelrod/social-capital-glue-for-sustainability-542466
This 2008 Slideshare presentation shows value of social and networked organizations. The author says "Networks are social capital; where business value is created in relationships. Network analysis reveals the networks. CORE process identifies new market opportunities or innovation, improvises effectiveness, extends firms reach through stakeholder networks."   Our aim in mentoring is to expand this network to include youth, families and non profit organizations in high poverty areas.

SOCIAL CHANGE ONE-ON-ONE. CASE FOR MENTORING
https://prospect.org/civil-rights/social-change-one-one-new-mentoring-movement/
This is a 1996 article written by Gary  Walker, of Public/Private Ventures and Marc  Freedman. The case for mentoring is still strong. 

SOCIAL MOBILITY IN AMERICA - 2016 ARTICLE
https://www.milkenreview.org/articles/social-mobility-a-promise-that-could-still-be-kept
This article illustrates that where you are born and who your parents are has huge impact on life-well-being. Includes quote saying "No single program does very much to close the gap between children from lower- and higher-income families. But the combined effects of multiple programs – that is, from intervening early and often in a child's life – has a surprisingly big impact."  Public/Private sector strategies that fill high poverty neighborhoods with a variety of youth supports should be one response to this article. 

SOCIAL MOBILITY-SOCIAL CAPITAL - BEST PLACES TO BE BORN IN US
https://socialcapital.wordpress.com/2013/08/15/good-places-for-kids-social-mobility/
This article uses maps to illustrate how different levels of social capital in the place where youth were born affects their upward social mobility. This was posted on the Social Capital Blog. 

SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS ARTICLES
https://tutormentorexchange.wordpress.com/2016/09/09/social-network-analysis-articles/
This link points to a Tutor/Mentor Connection blog on Wordpress where we are posting some additional articles to read.  These were originally collected in a Social Network Analysis group hosted on the T/MC's Ning site. 

SOCIAL NETWORKS - NEW RESOURCE FOR STUDENTS
http://www.bobpearlman.org/Articles/Student_Success.htm
Networking, or acquiring a social network, is a key skill of the 21st Century. It’s how you learn, and how you connect. Read this 2002 article by Bob Pearlman, titled  New Ingredient for Student Success: Social Networks, and learn more how your organization can help students expand their social networks.  This web site  has many more resources related to the same ideas.

NOTE: this article points to a 2002 Workforce Study. You can find the PDF version of that study at jointventure.org/images/stories/pdf/2002workforcestudy.pdf

SOCIAL NETWORKS AND SOCIAL CAPITAL: RETHINKING THEORY IN COMMUNITY INFORMATICS
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220536667_Social_Networks_and_Social_Capital_Rethinking_Theory_in_Community_Informatics
This article provides an in-depth discussion of social capital as it relates to community informatics. If you're building your understanding of social capital, and the difference between bridging and bonding, strong and weak ties, this would be a good read.

STUDY ASSESSING THE SOCIAL NTWORKS OF YOUTH IN FOSTER CARE - PDF
click here
This paper, titled "Exploring Support Network Structure, Content, and Stability as Youth Transition from Foster Care" by Jennifer Elizabeth Blakeslee, uses social network analysis to study networks of support for youth transitioning from foster care. This provides quite a bit of thinking for others who might apply social network analysis to demonstrate the benefit of volunteer-based programs serving k-12 youth in high poverty areas.

THE RESILIENCE RESEARCH CENTRE
https://resilienceresearch.org/
From the web site: "Resilience research involving children, youth and families looks at the health-enhancing capacities, individual, family and community resources, and developmental pathways of vulnerable children and youth, who against all odds, manage not only to survive unhealthy environments, but thrive. The Resilience Research Centre supports both quantitative and qualitative research, with an emphasis on mixed methods designs that favor understanding resilience as a culturally and contextually embedded construct."

UNDERSTANDING "CULTURE OF POVERTY" - ARTICLE
https://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/18/us/18poverty.html?pagewanted=2&_r=1
This 2010 New York Times article does not specifically mention the term "social capital" but statements like "growing up in areas where violence limits socializing outside the family  and where parents haven’t attended college stunts verbal ability,  lowering I.Q. scores by as much as six points, the equivalent of missing  more than a year in school.' are examples of communities with limited "bridging" social capital.

VIOLENCE IN AMERICA AND SOCIAL CAPITAL - 2012 ARTICLE
https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/primate-diaries/the-jokers-wild/
This article reaches a conclusion that "The clear implication is that social capital followed by income inequality are the primary factors that influence the rate of homicidal aggression."

WHO YOU KNOW.ORG FOCUSES ON SOCIAL CAPITAL
https://whoyouknow.org/
This website was established in 2020 by The Christensen Institute to share strategies educators are using to build and expand students' social capital.

WHO YOU KNOW: RELATIONSHIPS,NETWORKS AND SOCIAL CAPITAL IN BOOSTING EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY FOR YOUNG AMERICANS
https://www.brookings.edu/research/who-you-know-relationships-networks-and-social-capital-in-boosting-educational-opportunity-for-young-americans/
2022 BrookingsEdu article and report discusses role of bridging and bonding social capital in helping young people move through school and into jobs and careers. 

WHY SOCIAL CAPITAL COULD BE THE KEY TO SOLVING AMERICA’S OVERDOSE EPIDEMIC
https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/aug/16/social-capital-us-opioid-epidemic-drugs-overdose
Many of the arguments made in this article can be applied to mentoring and helping youth living in poverty, or who are isolated because of a number of different issues.  Expanding the network of support is essential for the well-being of many. 

 
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